Bài tập tiếng anh chuyên ngành công nghệ thông tin

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Mô tả: Tài liệu tham khảo Bài tập tiếng anh chuyên ngành Công nghệ thông tin (Dùng cho sinh viên hệ đào tạo đại học từ xa). Mời các bạn tham khảo tài liệu để nắm vững thêm nhiều từ vựng tiếng anh trong chuyên ngành công nghệ thông tin. HỌC VIỆN CÔNG NGHỆ BƯU CHÍNH VIỄN THÔNG BÀI TẬP TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH CNTT (Dùng cho sinh viên hệ đào tạo đại học từ xa) Lưu hành nội bộ HÀ NỘI - 2006 HỌC VIỆN CÔNG NGHỆ BƯU CHÍNH VIỄN THÔNG BÀI TẬP TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH CNTT Biên soạn : THS. LÊ THỊ HỒNG HẠNH CN. NGUYỄN THỊ HUỆ Câu hỏi 3 CÂU HỎI Câu 1: Hãy đọc kỹ đoạn văn sau và trả lời câu hỏi Throughout the ages people have sought to understand the world around them and to explain it in a systematic way. A system is simply a group of elements which work together to achieve a purpose. Systems can be very large, such as the system of courts and laws we call our 'legal system', or very small, such as the system involved in cleaning your teeth. Systems can occur in nature or be designed by people. The water cycle (described below) is an example of a natural system. Banking systems and computer systems are examples of systems designed by people. Input-process-output Processing systems accomplish a task: they take one or more inputs and carry out a process to produce one or more outputs. An input is something put into the system, a process is a series of' actions or changes carried out by the system, while an output is something taken from the system. All systems can be represented by the following input-process-output (IPO) diagram. The shaded area in the diagram represents the system. The letter 'I' stands for input and the letter '0' stands for output. The input into this system is an output from another system and the output from this system is an input into another system. To develop these ideas further we will consider three systems: coffee making the water cycle and the shop. THE WATER CYCLE Water circulates between the earth and the atmosphere; this is an example of a system occurring in nature. It is driven by. the heat of the sun which causes evaporation from bodies of water and transpiration from plants. The water vapour in the atmosphere forms clouds under certain conditions. When these clouds have more water vapour than they can hold, precipitation occurs and the water is returned back to the earth as rain;' hail, dew or snow. This process of moving water from the earth into the atmosphere and back to the earth is called the water cycle. The inputs are the heat from the sun, and water from oceans, lakes, rivers and plants. The process consists of actions such as evaporation, transpiration and precipitation. The output is the circulation of the water between the earth and its atmosphere. THE SHOP A shop is a retail system designed by people; its purpose is to allow customers to purchase goods or items. The inputs are the goods to be sold. The process consists of actions such as Câu hỏi 4 receiving goods from the warehouse, packing the goods into the shop and selling the goods at the counter. The output is the goods sold to the customers. 1. Write down whether the following statements are true or false. a. A system is a group of elements which work together to achieve a purpose. b. An input is something taken from the system. c. Systems have only recently been studied. d. A process involves any actions or changes carried out by the system. e. A shop is an example of a. system designed by people. f. Systems cannot be represented by diagrams. g. An output is something taken from the system. h. All systems contain an input, a process and an output. i. Coffee making cannot be considered as a system. j. The water cycle is an example of a system occurring in nature. 2. Making a piece of buttered toast is a simple system. a What are its input, process and output? b Draw an IPO diagram to represent this system. Câu hỏi 5 3. Planting a tree bought from the nursery can be considered a system. a What are its input, process and output? b Draw an IPO diagram to represent this system. 4. A recorded music system involves using a record, cassette or compact disc to listen to music. a What are its input, process and output? b Draw an IPO diagram to represent this system. 5. Every action we take can be considered as a system. Do you agree? Câu 2: Refinement and synthesis Refining a system means analysing it in more detail and breaking it down into smaller components. Each part of the process may be considered either as a system in itself, or as a sub- system. A sub-system is a small system which is part of a larger system. It also contains a group of elements which work together to achieve a purpose. Synthesis is the reverse process; it involves combining simple sub-systems into a larger, more complex system. The shaded area in the above diagram represents a large system which has been broken down into two smaller systems, or sub-systems. THE WATER CYCLE A refinement of the water cycle system could consider each part of the process - evaporation, transpiration and precipitation - as sub-systems. . Evaporation is a sub-system which converts water into water vapour. The inputs are the heat of the sun and water in large' bodies such as oceans, lakes and rivers. The process involves changing the water into vapour.The output is the water vapour. . Transpiration is a sub-system which converts moisture in plants and other bodies into water vapour. The inputs are the heat of the sun, and plants and other bodies. The process involves changing the moisture from plants into vapour. The output is the water vapour. . . Precipitation is a sub-system which converts water vapour into water in the form of rain, hail, dew and snow. The input is the water vapour in the form of clouds. The process involves changing the water vapour into water. The output is rain, hail, dew and snow. Câu hỏi 6 Refining the water cycle into these three sub-systems is only one way of understanding it. The water cycle is a very complex system and contains many other processes which could have been used to refine the system. THE SHOP A shop could be refined by considering each part of the process - receiving goods, packing goods and selling goods - as sub-systems. . Receiving goods is a sub-system whose purpose is to prepare goods for placement in the shop. The input is the goods on trucks from the warehouse. The process involves off-loading the goods from the trucks. The output is the goods in the storage area. . . Packing goods is a sub-system whose purpose. is to prepare goods for sale. The input is the goods in the storage area. The process involves unpacking the goods and placing them on shelves and display racks. The output is the goods ready for sale. . Selling goods is a sub-system whose purpose is to exchange the goods for cash or credit. The input is the goods ready for sale on the shelves. The process involves customers buying the goods at the counter. The output is the goods sold. Here the refinement of the shop has involved three sub-systems all linked together so that the output from one sub-system is the input into another sub-system. This is just one way of explaining the shop as a system. Câu hỏi 7 Systems are refined they are broken down into sub-systems, giving one level. If these sub- systems are broken down into smaller sub-systems, another level can be seen. For example, the refinement of the shop contains a sub-system for selling goods at the counter. This sub-system could be broken down into selling goods by cash and selling goods by credit. Each of these parts is a sub-system of the subsystem, and they provide another level for viewing the system of the shop. 1. Copy and complete the following sentences. a A………………… is a small system which is part of a larger system. b Systems can be viewed at different…………… c Combining sub-systems to form a larger system is called………………. d A……………….is a group of elements which work together to achieve a purpose. e An………………….is something put into the system. f Breaking down large systems into smaller sub-systems is called…………… g The…………………….is an example of a system occurring in nature. h A shop is an example of a system designed by………………. i An output is something taken……………….the system. j The……………… involves the actions carried out by the system. 2. What is a sub-system? 3. Explain the difference between, refinement and synthesis. 4. 'Systems can be viewed at different levels.' Explain this statement. 5. Refine your system for planting a tree bought from the nursery into sub-systems. List these sub-systems. Câu 3: A system as a black box Many people; do not understand how a system works, yet they know that if the system is given a certain input it will produce a certain output. For example, in a recorded music system when a CD is placed in the CD player and the play button is pressed, the music will be heard. Most people are not concerned with how the CD player works. A system such as this can be called a 'black box' because the internal components of the system are not fully understood by most people. Their main concern is that the system accomplishes its task. ENVIRONMENT Systems work under certain physical conditions or surrounding influences which are called their environment. For 'example: . the environment of coffee making consists of the shop where the coffee and milk were bought, the water board which supplies the water and the electricity commission which supplies the electricity . the environment of the water cycle consists of our solar system . the environment of the shop consists of the cost of the goods from the wholesaler, the transport system used by the trucks, or the amount of money the consumers have to spend. Câu hỏi 8 All these factors are not controlled by the system; they are outside the system but have some influence on it. BOUNDARY The limit of a system is called its boundary. It is determined by the observer who decides which parts it takes up the system and where the boundary is drawn. For example: . the boundary of coffee making might consist of the walls of the kitchen where the coffee is made . the boundary of the water cycle might consist of the earth and its atmosphere . . the boundary of the shop might consist of the property where the shop is situated. 1. For each of the following statements, select a matching phrase from the list below. a. A system whose internal components are not fully understood. b. A small system which is part of a larger system. c. Separates the system and its environment. d .The breakdown of a large system into smaller sub-systems. e. The physical conditions within which the system operates. f. Something taken from the system. g. A group of elements which work together to achieve a purpose. h. A series of actions or changes carried out by the system. i. Something put into the system. ' j .The combination of sub-systems into a larger system, system process input sub-system black box refinement output synthesis boundary environment 2. What does the term 'black box' mean? 3. 'The boundaries of a particular system will vary.' Explain this statement. 4. Does the environment contain factors outside the system? Explain your answer. 5.Why are computer systems black boxes to most people? 6. List four systems which are black boxes to you. Câu 4: PROCEDURES Procedures are the set of instructions which specify what processing is to be performed, or what course of action is to take place. For example, the procedures in making coffee consist of: . placing a teaspoon of coffee in the cup . pouring the hot water into the cup . pouring the right quantity of milk into the cup . stirring . Câu hỏi 9 The procedures need to take into account the order of the processes, such as whether the milk is poured into the cup before or after the hot water. PROCESSOR AND RESOURCES The processor and the resources are closely linked. The processor is whatever carries out or executes the procedures. The person making the cup of coffee is the processor since she or he performs all the above procedures. The resources are used by the processor to perform the task. They include, anything which supports or assists the execution of the procedures, but do not include the inputs. The teaspoon used in making the cup of coffee is a resource. 1. The vowels have been omitted from these words. Write out the completed words. a. pr _c_ss_r f. r _s _rc_s b. _nv_r _nm__nt g. pr _c_d_r_s c. sys_m h. b_ _nd_ry d. _np_t i .synth_s_s e. s_b-syst_m j . _ _tp_t 2. Why is the system defined in terms of procedures, processor and resources? 3. What is the meaning of the following terms? a procedures b processor c resources 4. Why do procedures need to take into account the order of the processes? 5 .Making a piece of buttered toast is a system. What are its procedures, processor and resources? 6 . Planting a tree bought at the nursery is a system. What are its procedures, processor and resources? Câu 5: Hierarchy charts Just as we can refine a system into sub-systems, we can also refine a process into sub- processes, -also called modules. Each of these modules contains only one process. We can illustrate the different levels of the process using a hierarchy chart. The major module is shown as the top level and it can be refined into lower level modules as more detail is required. Control passes from the top level down to the next lower module or first refinement, then to the next lower module or second refinement, and' so on. As well as containing only one process, each module should contain a single entry and a single exit. 1 Write down whether the following statements are true or false. a. Modules are also called sub-processes. b. Each module in a hierarchy chart can have more than one entry and exit. c. Hierarchy charts are never changed. d. If more detail is required in a hierarchy chart, a further refinement is necessary. Câu hỏi 10 e. Hierarchy charts only illustrate the structl1re of the processes. f .The top level of the hierarchy chart contains the major module. g. Processors are the set of instructions which specify what processing is to be performed. h. Resources are whatever carry out or execute the procedures. i The environment is the limit of the system. j. A black box is a system whose internal components are not fully understood. 2 What is the purpose of a hierarchy chart? 3 Hierarchy charts use a top-down method. Explain the meaning of this. 4 What is a module in a hierarchy chart? . 5 The first level in a hierarchy chart is called the top level. What is the next lower level called? 6 Making a piece of buttered toast 'is a system. Draw a hierarchy chart to illustrate the process for toasting the bread. 7 The recorded music system involves using a record, cassette or compact disc to listen to music. Draw a hierarchy chart to illustrate the process of selecting music Câu 6: IPO charts An input-process-output (IPO) chart is another method of describing a system. It specifies the inputs put into the system, the processing to be carried out by the system and the outputs taken from the system. It consists of three columns with the headings input, process and output. IPO charts can also be drawn for any sub-system. For example, IPO charts could be drawn for the evaporation, transpiration and precipitation sub-systems of the water cycle. IPO charts provide a quick and efficient way of describing a system. 1. Complete the following sentences a. ………… charts are a way of describing a system by specifying inputs, processes and outputs. b. Hierarchy charts are used to show the levels of refinement of a ………… c. Procedures are the set of…………… which specify what processing is to be performed. d. Resources are used by the ……………………… to perform its task. e. IPO charts can be drawn for any………………………. f .Processes are broken down into smaller components called……………… g. A……………….is whatever carries out or executes the procedures. h. A hierarchy chart passes control from the………………………… level down to the first refinement. i . A………………is a system whose internal components are not fully understood. j. The……………… is the physical conditions or surrounding influences within which the system operates. 2. Describe an IPO chart. . HỌC VIỆN CÔNG NGHỆ BƯU CHÍNH VIỄN THÔNG BÀI TẬP TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH CNTT (Dùng cho sinh viên hệ đào tạo đại học. từ xa) Lưu hành nội bộ HÀ NỘI - 2006 HỌC VIỆN CÔNG NGHỆ BƯU CHÍNH VIỄN THÔNG BÀI TẬP TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH CNTT Biên soạn : THS. LÊ THỊ HỒNG HẠNH CN.

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