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Mô tả: (Accredited Business Accountant or Accredited Business Advisor), in the US, is a national credential conferred by Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation to professionals who specialize in supporting the financial needs of individuals and small to medium sized businesses. ABA is the only Thuật ngữ kế toán bằng tiếng Anh 1 A&E can mean either Appropriation & Expense or Analysis & Evaluation. A&G is Adminstrative & General. A&M is Additions and Maintenance. A&P is an acronym for Administrative and Personnel. ABA (Accredited Business Accountant or Accredited Business Advisor), in the US, is a national credential conferred by Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation to professionals who specialize in supporting the financial needs of individuals and small to medium sized businesses. ABA is the only nationally recognized alternative to the CPA. Most accredited individuals do not perform audits. Generally, they are small business owners themselves. In addition to general accounting work, CPAs are also heavily schooled in performing audits; however, only a small fraction of America's businesses require an audit. In general, a CPA has majored in accounting, passed the CPA examination and is licensed to perform audits. An ABA has majored in accounting, passed the ABA comprehensive examination and in most states is not licensed to perform audits. ABATEMENT, in general, is the reduction or lessening. In law, it is the termination or suspension of a lawsuit. For example, an abatement of taxes is a tax decrease or rebate. ABC see ACTIVITY BASED COSTING. ABM see ACTIVITY BASED MANAGEMENT. ABOVE THE LINE, in accounting, denotes revenue and expense items that enter fully and directly into the calculation of periodic net income, in contrast to below the line items that affect capital accounts directly and net income only indirectly. ABOVE THE LINE, for the individual, is a term derived from a solid bold line on Form 1040 and 1040A above the line for adjusted gross income. Items above the line prior to coming to adjusted gross income, for example, can include: IRA contributions, half of the self-employment tax, self-employed health insurance deduction, Keogh retirement plan and self-employed SEP deduction, penalty on early withdrawal of savings, and alimony paid. A taxpayer can take deductions above the line and still claim the standard deduction. ABSORB is to assimilate, transfer or incorporate amounts in an account or a group of accounts in a manner in which the first entity loses its identity and is "absorbed" within the second entity. For example, see ABSORPTION COSTING. ABSORPTION see ABSORB. 2 ABSORPTION COSTING is the method under which all manufacturing costs, both variable and fixed, are treated as product costs with non-manufacturing costs, e.g. selling and administrative expenses, being treated as period costs. ABSORPTION VARIANCE is the variance from budgeted absorption costing of manufactured product. See also ABSORPTION COSTING. ACAT (Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation) is a national organization established in 1973 as a non-profit independent testing, accrediting and monitoring organization. The Council seeks to identify professionals in independent practice who specialize in providing financial, accounting and taxation services to individuals and small to mid-size businesses. Professionals receive accreditation through examination and/or coursework and maintain accreditation through commitment to a significant program of continuing professional education and adherence to the Council's Code of Ethics and Rules of Professional Conduct. ACB normally refers to 'adjusted cost base.' ACCELERATED DEPRECIATION is a method of calculating depreciation with larger amounts in the first year(s). ACCEPTANCE is a drawee's promise to pay either a TIME DRAFT or SIGHT DRAFT. Normally, the acceptor signs his/her name after writing "accepted" (or some other words indicating acceptance) on the bill along with the date. That "acceptance" effectively makes the bill a promissory note, i.e. the acceptor is the maker and the drawer is the endorser. ACCOMODATION ENDORSEMENT is a) the guarantee given by one legal entity to induce a lender to grant a loan to another legal entity. b) a banking practice where one bank endorses the acceptances of another bank, for a fee, qualifying them for purchase in the acceptance market. ACCOUNT is the detailed record of a particular asset, liability, owners' equity, revenue or expense. ACCOUNT AGING usually refers to the methods of tracking past due accounts in accounts receivable based on the dates the charges were incurred. Account aging can also be used in accounts payable, to a lesser degree, to monitor payment history to suppliers. ACCOUNT ANALYSIS is a way to measure cost behavior. It selects a volume- related cost driver and classifies each account from the accounting records as a fixed or variable cost. The cost accountant then looks at each cost account balance and estimates either the variable cost per unit of cost driver activity or the periodic fixed cost. 3 ACCOUNTANT'S OPINION is a signed statement regarding the financial status of an entity from an independent public accountant after examination of that entities records and accounts. ACCOUNT DISTRIBUTION is the process by which debits and credits are identified to the correct accounts. ACCOUNT GROUP, in accounting, is a designation of a group of accounts of like type (for example: accounts receivable and fixed assets). ACCOUNTING is primarily a system of measurement and reporting of economic events based upon the accounting equation for the purpose of decision making. Generally, when someone says "accounting" they are referring to the department, activity or individuals involved in the application of the accounting equation. ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS are the assumptions underlying the preparation of financial statements, i.e., the basic assumptions of going concern, accruals, consistency and prudence. ACCOUNTING CYCLE is the sequence of steps in preparing the financial statements for a given period. ACCOUNTING DIVERSITY is the recognition that many diverse national and international accounting standards exist in the world. ACCOUNTING ENTITY ASSUMPTION states that a business is a separate legal entity from the owner. In the accounts the business’ monetary transactions are recorded only. ACCOUNTING EQUATION is a mathematical expression used to describe the relationship between the assets, liabilities and owner's equity of the business model. The basic accounting equation states that assets equal liabilities and owner's equity, but can be modified by operations applied to both sides of the equation, e.g., assets minus liabilities equal owner's equity. ACCOUNTING EVENT is when the assets and liabilities of a business increase/decrease or when there are changes in owner's equity. ACCOUNTING PACKAGE/SOFTWARE, usually, is a commercially available software program or suite that, with little customization, will satisfy the accounting system needs of the purchasing entity. ACCOUNTING PERIOD is the time period for which accounts are prepared, usually one year. 4 ACCOUNTING RATIO is the result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret financial statements by focusing on specific relationships. ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD (ASB) makes, improves, amends and withdraws accounting standards. Many of ASBs specialize in the various fields or sectors of accounting. ACCOUNTING THEORY tries to describe the role of accounting and is composed of four types of accounting theory: classical inductive theories, income theories, decision usefulness theories, and information economics / agency theories: a. Classical inductive theories are attempts to find the principles on which current accounting processes are based; b. Income theories try to identify the real profit of an organization; c. Decision usefulness theories attempt to describe accounting as a process of providing the relevant information to the relevant decision makers; and, d. The information economics / agency theories of accounting see accounting information as a good to be traded between rational agents each acting in their own self-interest. ACCOUNTING TIMING DIFFERENCE is the effect that a defered accounting event would have on the financials if taken into consideration e.g., the release of a deferred tax asset to the income statement as a deferred tax expense (ie the reversal of an accounting timing difference). ACCOUNTS PAYABLE (AP) are trade accounts of businesses representing obligations to pay for goods and services received. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE TO SALES measures the speed with which a company pays vendors relative to sales. Numbers higher than typical industry ratios suggest that the company is using suppliers assets (cash owed) to fund operations. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE is a current asset representing money due for services performed or merchandise sold on credit. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE LEDGER is the bookkeeping ledger in which all accounts for which cash assets owed to an organization is maintained. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE TURNOVER is the ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, which is a measure of how quickly customers pay their bills. ACCRETION is the adjustment of the difference between the price of a bond purchased at an original discount and the par value of the bond; or, asset growth through internal growth, expansion or natural causes, e.g. the aging of wine or growth of timber/trees. 5 ACCRUAL is the recognition of revenue when earned or expenses when incurred regardless of when cash is received or disbursed. ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING is wherein revenue and expenses are recorded in the period in which they are earned or incurred regardless of whether cash is received or disbursed in that period. This is the accounting basis that generally is required to be used in order to conform to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in preparing financial statements for external users. ACCRUAL CONCEPT see ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING. ACCRUED ASSETS are assets from revenues earned but not yet received. ACCRUED EXPENSES are expenses incurred during an accounting period for which payment is postponed. ACCRUED INCOME is income earned during a fiscal period but not paid by the end of the period. ACCRUED INTEREST is interest earned but not paid since the last due date. ACCRUED INVENTORY functions as a "clearing" account to establish a liability for inventory physically received into the warehouse, but for which a vendor invoice had not yet arrived. ACCRUED LIABILITY are liabilities which are incurred, but for which payment is not yet made, during a given accounting period. Some examples in a manufacturing environment would be: wages, taxes, suppliers/vendors, etc. ACCRUED PAYROLL is a liability arising from employees' salary expense that has been incurred but not paid. ACCRUED REVENUE is the accumulated revenue as they have been recognized over a given period. ACCUMULATED AMORTIZATION is the cumulative charges against the intangible assets of a company over the expected useful life of the assets. ACCUMULATED DEPRECIATION is the cumulative charges against the fixed assets of a company for wear and tear or obsolescence. ACH is Automated Clearing House. ACID-TEST RATIO is an analysis method used to measure the liquidity of a business by dividing total liquid assets by current liabilities. 6 ACMA is an acronym for Associate Chartered Management Accountant. ACQUISITION is one company taking over controlling interest in another company. See also MERGER and POOLING OF INTERESTS. ACQUISITION COST is the amount, net of both trade and cash discounts, paid for property, plus transportation costs and ancillary costs. ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) is a costing system that identifies the various activities performed in a firm and uses multiple cost drivers (non-volume as well as the volume based cost drivers) to assign overhead costs (or indirect costs) to products. ABC recognizes the causal relationship of cost drivers with activities. ACTIVITY BASED MANAGEMENT (ABM) converts Activity Based Costing (ABC) into a system to manage an organization. Activity Based Management not only focuses on product, service, customer, channel costing, it also emphasizes: cost drivers (root cause analysis), action plans to improve to achieve strategic objectives, and, performance measures for activities and processes. ACTIVITY DRIVERS, in activity based costing (ABC), activity costs are assigned to outputs using activity drivers. Activity drivers assign activity costs to outputs based on individual outputs’ consumption or demand for activities. For example, a driver may be the number of times an activity is performed (transaction driver) or the length of time an activity is performed (duration driver) see DURATION DRIVERS, INTENSITY DRIVERS, TRANSACTION DRIVERS. ACTIVITY RATIO is any accounting ratio that measures a firm's ability to convert different accounts within their balance sheets into cash or sales. ACTUAL COST is the amount paid for an asset; not its retail value, market value or insurance value. ACTUALS is jargon used when speaking of an actual number experienced through some point in time as opposed to a number that is budgeted or projected into the future, e.g., year-to-date sales, expenses, product produced, etc. ACTUARIAL METHOD means the method of allocating payments made on a debt between the amount financed and the finance or other charges where the payment is applied first to the accumulated finance or other charges and any remainder is subtracted from, or any deficiency is added to the unpaid balance of the amount financed. ADDITIONAL PAID IN CAPITAL is the amounts paid for stock in excess of its par value; included are other amounts paid by stockholders and charged to equity accounts other than capital stock. 7 ADEQUATE DISCLOSURE is sufficient information in footnotes, as well as financial statements, indicative of a firm's financial status. ADF, in invoicing, is After Deducting Freight. AD HOCis being concerned with a particular end or purpose, e.g., a ad hoc committee established to handle a specific subject. ADI, in invoicing, is After Date of Invoice. ADJUNCT ACCOUNT is an account that accumulates either additions or subtractions to another account. Thus the original account may retain its identity. Examples include premiums on bonds payable, which is a contra account to bonds payable; and accumulated depreciation, which is an offset to the fixed asset. ADJUSTED BASIS see BASIS. ADJUSTED BOOK VALUE: Your MBA performs two types of adjusted book value analysis. Tangible Book Value and Economic Book Value (also known as Book Value at Market). • Tangible Book Value is different than book value in that it deducts from asset value intangible assets, which are assets that are not hard (e.g., goodwill, patents, capitalized start-up expenses and deferred financing costs). • Economic Book Value allows for a book value analysis that adjusts the assets to their market value. This valuation allows valuation of goodwill, real estate, inventories and other assets at their market value. ADJUSTING ENTRIES are special accounting entries that must be made when you close the books at the end of an accounting period. Adjusting entries are necessary to update your accounts for items that are not recorded in your daily transactions. ADJUSTMENT can be either: 1. an increase or decrease to an account resulting from ADJUSTING ENTRIES; or, 2. changing an account balance due to some event, e.g., adjustment of an account due to the return of merchandise for credit. ADMINISTRATIVE/ADMINISTRATION COST see INDIRECT COST. ADVERSE OPINION is expressed if the basis of accounting is unacceptable and distorts the financial reporting of the corporation. If auditors discover circumstances during the course of the audit that make them question whether they can issue an unqualified opinion, they should always discuss those 8 circumstances with the client before issuing the opinion, in order to determine whether it is possible to rectify the problem. ADVISING BANK is a bank in the exporter's country handling a letter of credit. AFE, dependent upon usage, is an acronym for Authorization for Expenditure or Average Funds Employed. AFFILIATE is a relationship between two companies when one company owns substantial interest, but less than a majority of the voting stock of another company, or when two companies are both subsidiaries of a third company. AGENCY is the relationship between a principal and an agent wherein the agent is authorized to represent the principal in certain transactions. AGENCY COSTS is the incremental costs of having an Agent make decisions for a principal. AGGREGATE is the sum or total. AGGREGATE THEORY is a theory of partnership taxation in which a partnership is considered as an aggregate of individual co-owners who have bound themselves together with the intention of sharing gains and loses; under this theory, the partnership itself has no existence separate and apart from its members. AGI (Annual Gross Income) is annualized total income prior to exclusions and deductions. AGING see ACCOUNT AGING. AGING OF RECEIVABLES see ACCOUNT AGING. AGREED UPON PROCEDURES are used when a client retains an external auditor to perform specific tests and procedures and report on the results. Examples might include special reviews of loan portfolio or internal control systems. In performing agreed-upon procedures, the auditor provides no opinion, certification, or assurance that the assertions being made in the financial statements are free from material misstatement. The users of reports based on agreed-upon procedures must draw their own conclusions on the results of the tests reported. For example, an external auditor could be asked to look at a certain number of corporation loan files and document which of the required forms are in the files. The auditor would report on the selection and the results of the procedures performed but would not provide a formal opinion with conclusions drawn from the results of the procedures. 9 AICPA is the American Institute [of] Certified Public Accountants. AIR WAYBILL is a bill of lading and contract between the shipper and the airline for delivery of goods to a specified location, and sometimes with specified delivery date/time. Non-negotiable, but serves as receipt from the airline to prove that goods were received. ALLOCATE is to distribute according to a plan or set apart for a special purpose. Examples: a. spread a cost over two or more accounting periods; b. charge a cost or revenue to a number of departments, products, processes or activities on a rational basis. ALLOCATION is the act of distributing by allotting or apportioning; distribution according to a plan, e.g., allocating costs is the assignment of costs to departments or products over various time periods, products, operations, or investments. See ALLOCATE. ALLONGE is a piece of paper attached to a negotiable instrument to allow space for writing endorsements. ALL OTHER CURRENT ASSETS relates to any other current assets. Does not include prepaid items. ALL OTHER CURRENT LIABILITIES includes any other current liabilities, including bank overdrafts and accrued expenses. ALL OTHER EXPENSES (NET) includes miscellaneous other income and expenses (net), such as interest expense, miscellaneous expenses not included in general and administrative expenses, netted against recoveries, interest income, dividends received and miscellaneous income. ALL OTHER NON-CURRENT ASSETS are prepaid items and any other non- current assets. ALL OTHER NON-CURRENT LIABILITIES means any other non-current liabilities, including subordinated debt, and liability reserves. ALLOWANCE, within Sales, is a concession granted to customers for unsatisfactory goods or services. Reduces sales because a portion of the sale has not been earned. ALLOWANCE FOR BAD DEBTS is an account established to record a subtraction from ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, to allow for those accounts that will not be paid. 10 . Thuật ngữ kế toán bằng tiếng Anh 1 A&E can mean either Appropriation & Expense or

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